How to Reference in Numeric Style


Numbering Each Source Individually

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    Place a number directly after listing the source. Numerical citations should be placed in sequence throughout the paper, starting with “1”. The citations should go directly after a mention of a source (e.g. “In his final publication, Foucault (16) claimed that…”) Format your numerical citations in round brackets, square brackets, or superscript.[1]

    • When referring to indirectly to a source, place the number at the end of your sentence. For instance, “Gender is a social construct perpetuated by social norms (3).”
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    Include page numbers when necessary. Add a page number to the in-text portion of your numeric citation if you’ve borrowed content from a specific part of a document. This may include using a table, picture, or diagram from a source, or borrowing a concept or argument specific to a certain part of a document. To reference multiple pages, use the abbreviation “pp.” instead of “p.”.[2]

    • For example, “The author made a comparison between modern photography and portrait painting (6, p. 47)…”
    • If the page numbers are listed in roman numerals, do not include the abbreviation “p.” or “pp.” in front of them.
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    Use the same citation number for the same source. Do not use more than one number for the same document. If you cite the same source more than once in a paper, re-use the number that you used initially. If you are referencing a different part of the text, indicate a page number or a section number.[3]
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    Group together multiple citations. If you cite more than one source in the same sentence, there are two options for how to format it. Group the citation numbers together by placing the numbers in the same set of brackets, separated by commas. Alternatively, present each citation number in its own set of brackets, and separate these individual citations with commas.[4]

    • For instance, write either “Several recent studies [3,5,6] have suggested that…” or “Several recent studies [3], [5], [6] have suggested that…”.
    • If you are using superscript for your numeric citations, place the citation numbers together, separated by commas.[5]
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    Put quotation marks around direct quotations. Indicate direct quotes from a source clearly, with quotation marks. If you are inserting a long quote (more than four sentences) into your text, indent the block quotation. Avoid using overly long quotes unless they are directly pertinent to your paper.[6]

    • E.g., “McLuhan wrote, “the medium is the message” (12)…”.


Source: wikihow. com

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